ATP

ATP (Adenosine TriPhospahte) and APS Therapy

The energy currency or coin of the cell, transfers energy from chemical bonds to endergonic (energy absorbing) reactions within the cell. Structurally, ATP consist of the adenine nucleotide (ribose sugar, adenine base and phosphate group, PO4-2) plus two other phosphate groups.

Energy is stored in the covalent bonds between phosphates, with the greatest amount of energy (approximately 7 kcal/mole) in the bond between the second and third phosphate groups. This covalent bond is known as a pyrophosphate bond.

We can write the chemical reaction for the formation of ATP as:

a) In chemicalese: ADP + Pi + energy        ATP

b) In English: Adenosine diphosphate + inorganic Phosphate + energy  produces Adenosine Triphosphate

The chemical formula for the expenditure/release of ATP energy can be written as:

a) In chemicalese: ATP       ADP + energy + Pi

b) In English: Adenosine Triphosphate produces Adenosine diphosphate + energy + inorganic Phosphate

An analogy between ATP and rechargeable batteries is appropriate. The batteries are used, giving up their potential energy until it has all been converted into kinetic energy and heat/unusable energy. Recharged batteries (into which energy has been put) can be used only after the input of additional energy. Thus, ATP is the higher energy form (the recharged battery) while ADP is the lower energy form (the used battery). When the terminal (third) phosphate is cut loose, ATP becomes ADP(Adenosine diphosphate; di = two), and the stored energy is released for some biological process to utilise. The input of additional energy (plus a phosphate group) “recharges” ADP into ATP. (the spent batteries are recharged by the input of additional energy).

Two processes convert ADP into ATP:

1)    Substrate-level phosphorylation

2)    Chemiosmosis

Substrate-level phosphorylation occurs in the cytoplasm when an enzyme attaches a third phosphate to the ADP (both ADP and the phosphates are the substrates on which the enzyme acts).

Chemiosmosis involves more than the single enzyme of substrate-level phosphorylation. Enzymes in chemiosmotic synthesis are arranged in an electron transport chain that is embedded in a membrane. In eukaryotes this membrane is in either the chloroplast or mitochondrion. According to the chemiosmosis hypothesis proposed by Peter Mitchell in 1961, a special ATP-synthesizing enzyme is also located in the membranes. Mitchell won the Nobel Prize for his work.


During chemiosmosis in eukaryotes, H+ ions are pumped across an organelle membrane into a confined space (bounded by membranes) that contains numerous hydrogen ions. The energy for the pumping comes from the coupled oxidation-reduction reactions in the electron transport chain or from a very small DC current.

Electrons are passed from one membrane-bound enzyme to another, losing some energy with each transfer (as per second law of thermodynamics). This “lost” energy allows for the pumping of hydrogen ions against the concentration gradient (there are fewer hydrogen ions outside the confined space than there are inside the confined space).

The confined hydrogen ions cannot pass back through the membrane. Their only exit is through the ATP synthesising enzyme that is located in the confining membrane. As the hydrogen passes through the ATP synthesizing enzyme, energy from the enzyme is used to attach a third phosphate to ADP, converting it to ATP.

Usually the terminal phosphate is not simply removed, but instead is attached to another molecule. This process is known as phosphorylation.

W + ATP   W ~ P + ADP where W is any compound, for example:

Glucose + ATP       glucose ~ P + ADP

Glucose can be converted into Glucose-6-phosphate by the addition of the phosphate group from ATP.

ATP serves as the biological energy company, releasing energy for both anabolic and catabolic processes and being recharged by energy generated from other catabolic reactions or by passing a small DC current through the tissue. (Ngok Cheng 1982).

APS Therapy in practise.

Life processes, as all events that involve work, require energy, and it is quite natural that such activities as muscle contraction, nerve conduction, transport, growth, reproduction as well as the synthesis of all the substances that are necessary for carrying out and regulating these activities, could not take place without an adequate supply of energy.

During respiration energy is conserved in a compound called Adenosine Tri-Phosphate, abbreviated as ATP. When ATP is split into Adenosine Di-Phosphate (ADP) and inorganic Phosphate (Pi), a relatively large amount of energy is liberated, which can be utilised, in the presence of specific enzymes, to drive various energy-requiring processes. Thus, ATP may be regarded as the universal “energy currency” of living cells.

In 1961 Dr. Peter Mitchell from the Glynn Research Laboratories, Bodmin, Cornwall , UK , suggested that the flow of electrons through the enzymes of the respiratory electron-transfer chains drives positively charged hydrogen ions, or protons, across the membranes of mitochondria, chloroplasts and bacteria cells. As a result, an electrochemical proton gradient is created across the membrane.

The gradient consists of two components: a difference in hydrogen ion concentration, or pH, and a difference in electric potential; the two together form what Mitchell calls the “protonmotive force”. The synthesis of ATP is driven by a reverse flow of protons down the gradient. Mitchell’s proposal has been called the “chemiosmotic theory”.

The Mitchell proposal was confirmed by:

Professor Paul D. Boyer, University of California , Los Angeles , USA , and

Dr. John E. Walker, Medical Research Council Laboratory of Molecular

 Biology, Cambridge , United Kingdom – who received the Nobel Prize for chemistry in 1997.

Ngok Cheng and colleagues established in 1982 that by passing a small DC current through tissue, it enhances the localised production of ATP.

APS Therapy enables a self regulated application of ATP in areas where it is required. The output waveform is of such a nature that it causes a tingling sensation when the current approaches the danger level where ATP destruction, due to excess electrolysis by-products start to take place.

One must be aware of the fact that all processes in the body are controlled with nerve impulses (Action Potentials). The sodium-potassium pump uses ATP energy to reset the sodium and potassium ions after the generation of an Action Potential (nerve impulse).

Negative feedback control occurs when information produced by the feedback reverses the direction of the response; regulates the secretion of most hormones. All the information in the control loop is transmitted with nerve impulses that require ATP.

Therefore the use of APS Therapy not only enables healing of damaged tissue and wounds but also enhances interbody communication which in general improves the general well being of people.

Definitions:

Chemiosmosis:

The process by which ATP is produced in the inner membrane of a mitochondrion. The electron transport system transfers protons from the inner compartment to the outer; as the protons flow back to the inner compartment, the energy of their movement is used to add phosphate to ADP, forming ATP.

Enzymes:

Protein molecules that act as catalysts in biochemical reactions.

Cytoplasm:

The viscous semi-liquid inside the plasma membrane of a cell; contains various macromolecules and organelles in solution and suspension.